Carriers


Carriers are mediums through which exergy and/or carbon flow through the system. For example, wind, electricity and gasoline are carriers of exergy, while only gasoline is a carrier of carbon. The flow of exergy and carbon through carriers is measured in units of watts (joules/second) and grams/second, respectively. Each carrier entry in the database contains relevant metadata such as a detailed description of its role in the global exergy system, as well as references to the published source of the data.


Position: represents the general placement of the carrier in the human energy system. Primary carriers represent sources of exergy. Intermediate carriers have been transformed from primary carriers but generally do not have direct human applications. Final carriers are used in end-use transformation to perform useful services.



Name Description Position
Dot Atmosphere This is the catch-all for carbon emissions as well as the carrier to carbon uptake ... primary
Dot Chemicals Needs work. The connection to material disposal appears to be backwards. intermediate
Dot Clouds We consider clouds a carrier, not an accumulation, given the short residence time o... primary
Dot Coastal Waves primary
Dot Cold Air Used in refrigeration final
Dot Cool Air Mostly air conditioning final
Dot Deep Ocean Water Represents the influxes and outfluxes of the deep ocean, which is a large reservoir... primary
Dot Ducted Air Exergy is invested into moving air in HVAC systems final
Dot Electricity intermediate
Dot Ethanol intermediate
Dot Extracted Natural Gas Natural gas as it comes out of the ground. May contain large quantities of CO2, N2... primary
Dot Extracted Petroleum Commodity pipeline quality crude oil primary
Dot Fresh Water Needs work. This appears to be only the potential part of fresh water exergy (not i... primary
Dot Gasoline, Diesel, Kerosine Needs work. Should be split into three parts: gasoline, diesel, kerosine. This mea... intermediate
Dot Geothermal Heat primary
Dot Heat (Cooking) Thermal energy transfer used for food cooking final
Dot Hot Water Hot water for residential, commercial and industrial use final
Dot Human and Animal Waste final
Dot Liquified Natural Gas Liquefied Natural Gas. This is assumed to be pipeline quality. intermediate
Dot Lumber Forest products that have been milled to the specifications of the wood products co... intermediate
Dot Mechanical Work (Appliances) This is the mechancial work done by motors in appliances. Most of it gets dissipat... final
Dot Mechanical Work (Human) The work we do with our muscles final
Dot Mechanical Work (Vehicles) All the work done on road, rail, ship and aircraft final
Dot Metals intermediate
Dot Methane Hydrates Methane hydrates/clathrates in the deep ocean primary
Dot Mid-Ocean Waves primary
Dot Mined Carbonates This is the mineral commodity, within the sphere of human influence (as opposed to ... primary
Dot Mined Coal primary
Dot Mined Metal Ore Commodity metal ores that have been mined primary
Dot Mined Uranium Ore primary
Dot Municipal Solid Waste final
Dot Naptha intermediate
Dot Nuclear Waste final
Dot Ocean Tides Ocean tides primary
Dot Paper Products Products of the Pulp and Paper Industry final
Dot Pipeline Natural Gas This is the commodity natural gas.. pipeline quality stuff intermediate
Dot Plant Matter primary
Dot Plastics final
Dot Processed Food final
Dot Propane Light liquid hydrocarbons really amounts to LPG. Sometimes it's true LPG (a pressu... intermediate
Dot Pumped Fluids Work done on the fluids in pipelines as the fluid is pumped from place to place final
Dot Pumped Water Potential energy in water in pumped hydro reservoirs and some naturally ocurring wa... intermediate
Dot Radiation to Space Radiation from the surface to cold space. primary
Dot Raw Food Farm products before they are packaged and sold. A small fraction of this goes str... final
Dot Rivers Rivers serve as an important conduit for carbon from the lithosphere to the hydrops... primary
Dot Soil Needs work. Currently there are no sources for soil primary
Dot Solid Biofuel Includes wood gathered for energy purposes, as well as crops devoted to fuel or the... intermediate
Dot Solid Earth Tides Exergy is processed (and destroyed) as the earth deforms due to celestial gravitati... primary
Dot Steam Steam is used as an exergy carrier in some industrial, commercial and residential a... intermediate
Dot Subsurface CO2 CO2 in the subsurface primary
Dot Subsurface Natural Gas Natural gas as it exists in the subsurface, before it has been extracted primary
Dot Subsurface Petroleum Oil in the subsurface, before it has been extracted primary
Dot Sunlight primary
Dot Surface Ocean Water Represents the influx and outflux of the surface ocean, which is a reservoir of exe... primary
Dot Textiles final
Dot Unmined Carbonates This includes all carbonate rocks as they exist in the lithosphere primary
Dot Unmined Coal This is coal as it exists in the lithosphere primary
Dot Unmined Metal Ore Metal ores as they exist in the lithosphere before they have been mined primary
Dot Unmined Uranium Ore Uranium as it exists in the lithosphere primary
Dot Uranium 235 Fissile nuclides are fuel for lots of reactors primary
Dot Uranium 238 Fissionable nuclides are fuel in some reacotrs. primary
Dot Visible Light Needs work. This is the light that comes from lighting. final
Dot Warm Air Energy transfer for space heating final
Dot Warm Water Energy transfer for residential, commercial and industrial warm water for process a... final
Dot Wind primary